Document Type : Research Article


Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Central University of Jharkhand, India


The rGO-ZnO composite was found promising improvement over the photocatalytic ability of pure ZnO and is useful for other Opto-chemical applications. ZnO/rGO composite was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The morphology of rGO caused better dispersion of the ZnO crystallites The reducing agent ammonia was varied in concentration during the synthesis. A reduction in the crystallization was observed for lower concentrations (0 – 1%) of ammonia which got stabilized in higher concentrations (>1%). The crystalline morphology showed variations from being close to amorphous to 38 nm. The average crystallite size was 15 nm. The rGO induced nonradiative phononic modes in the optical transition process when present in lower concentration but interestingly aided the crystallization process in a preferential crystallographic orientation which however got lowered in intensity for >2% ammonia concentration. The defect states formed in the rGO/ZnO composite in the form of oxygen vacancies, zinc interstitials, and vacancies caused a decrease in band gap due to indirect transitions. The role of ammonia in the performance of the composites was found to be significant