The microbial adhesion of pathogens on surfaces, followed by the formation of biofilms, constitute one important causes of diseases transmitted by foods. Biofilm control in the food industry is critical since biofilm removal is challenging. Thus, the functionalization of surfaces has been a strategy to prevent the multiplication of bacteria. This study aimed to functionalize stainless steel surfaces with zinc and niobium oxides and to analyze its antimicrobial capacity of Escherichia coli. In addition, the roughness surface was also investigated. The free energy of hydrophobic interaction was calculated by measuring the contact angle. The results showed that surface functionalization with metallic oxides efficiently controlled E. coli adhesion, achieving more than two decimal reductions in the initial population. It was found that the deposition of oxides modified the hydrophobicity of the stainless steel surface, making it hydrophilic, which may have added to the effect of functionalization for the antimicrobial efficiency of the obtained surface. The surfaces functionalized with zinc and niobium oxides had the highest roughness. Thus, surfaces with Nb and Zn oxides can be a promising alternative for application in the food industry to help control adhesion and obtain the final product of microbiological quality.