In presented article the research on sol-gel synthesis of silica aerogel from cheaper precursor water glass with ambient pressure drying was shown. In addition to strengthen the silica aerogel frame the as-received and oxidized carbon microfibers from coal-tar pitch were used. The presence of carbon microfibers in silica aerogel does not influence the structural parameters, on the contrary, the carbon microfibers diminish the density and contraction during drying of silica aerogel nanocomposite. Modification of the silica aerogels in a mixture of TMCS/n-hexane in 70°C with concurrent modification of carbon microfibers results in obtaining a durable nanocomposite, up to the temperature of 600°C, characterized by high level of hydrophobicity, which is proved by tests on contact angle. Moreover, the analysis with EDS probe proved, in case of the nanocomposites with carbon microfiber, a lack of sodium, being a remnant of the silica gel synthesis from water glass, which implies a higher level of substrate reaction during the sol-gel synthesis, and results in obtaining better parameters of the silica aerogel. Copyright © 2018 VBRI Press.