Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Microelectronics and Microsensors IETR, UMR, University of Rennes 1, Rennes, 35042, France

2 National Coordination for Education in Microelectronics, GIP-CNFM, Grenoble, 38016, France


Microelectronic technologies have progressively shifted to nanotechnologies thanks to a permanent decrease in the size of elementary devices over the last 50 years. This evolution has been achieved by decreasing the lateral dimensions of the devices, and the thicknesses of the layers involved in the architecture of the devices. The minimum dimensions have today reached the size of several atoms. New concepts are introduced to better control the fabrication processes and, therefore, the electrical properties of circuits and systems. In parallel, the application spectrum of microelectronics has been broadened, which allows developing complete integrated systems such as connected objects, which also broadens the necessary skills of designers in a multidisciplinary manner. Research and industry therefore have a strong need for such skills and competences. As a consequence, Higher education must continuously adapt to meet these needs. This approach requires the existence of technological platforms, which are becoming more and more expensive due to the increasing complexity of the technology and which must be shared. In France, a national network was created and organized in this way. Based on several examples of the activities of the French common centers, this paper presents how to maintain a high scientific level and skills based on the knowledge and know-how of future engineers and researchers.


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