In order to solve the problem of continuous large-scale detection of dust detection system in mines, a dust detection system based on wireless sensor network is designed. The system is composed of data acquisition node, ZigBee coordinator and ARM9 processor S3C2440. The data acquisition node includes temperature and humidity sensor DTU21D, laser dust detector and ZigBee node. CC2530 as the second generation of on-chip system that integrates RF and controller, is applied to ZigBee nodes and coordinators. The ZigBee protocol stack is used in software, and various functions of application layer are implemented on the basis of ZStack general module. This paper introduces the wireless data acquisition node based on ZigBee protocol, and gives the hardware design block diagram and software flow chart of data acquisition node, coordinator and data processing module. The experimental data prove that the communication reliability of the system is high, and it can realize the wireless, real-time, accurate and large-scale detection of dust concentration in the mine.