Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma Institute of Technology, Pune, India

2 Department of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, Vishwakarma University, Pune, India


Water plays an important role in the body to perform various crucial functions which include mineral supply to the body. The relative contribution of water to the total dietary intake for selected trace elements and electrolytes lies between 1 and 20%. Minerals are inorganic supplements which are required for humans in limited quantities in the range of 1 to 4000 mg per day, depending upon the type of mineral. Requirement of minerals changes from gender to different age group, similar to that of nutrients and other basic nourishment supplements. Calcium (Ca) is essential for humans in the development of bone and proper working of nerves and muscles. Magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are significant co-factors which are essential in various biochemical reactions. Iodine (I) is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which control body’s metabolism and many other body functions. Potassium (K) is significant for maintaining osmotic harmony among cells, and the interstitial liquid. Red platelets cannot work properly without iron in haemoglobin. Excessive consumption or insufficient intake of selected trace minerals can disturb the body balance and can cause various chronic effects. The paper studies the alterations in various biochemical functions when these trace minerals are consumed in disproportionate manner. This paper critically emphasizes on the controlled uptake of vital minerals such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, I, K from water.

Graphical Abstract

A Review on Essential Minerals in Water Required for Human Health and Nutrition


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