Issue 2


Welcome message of new AMP editors

Hisatoshi Kobayashi; Mikael Syväjärvi

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 71-71
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/201

From beginning of 2017, we are the editors of Advanced Materials Proceedings (AMP). The journal was implemented by previous editor-in-chief Ashutosh Tiwari. Since the activities of VBRI Press (www.vbripress.com) and International Association of Advanced Materials (www.iaamonline.org) has been growing constantly since the start a few years ago, the overall activities naturally needs more resources and time. With this letter we would like to introduce ourselves in short.

Modeling shape and size dependence of thermal expansion and Debye temperature of nanocrystals

Madan Singh; Spirit Tlali; Krishna Chandra

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 72-75
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/202

A simple theoretical model is developed to explore the size and shape dependence of thermal expansion and Debye temperature of nanomaterials. The model theory is based on cohesive energy and surface area change of the nanocrystals compared to the bulk crystals. It is found that the Debye temperature decreases with the decrease in particle size whereas, the thermal expansion increases as the particle size decreases. The present modelling results and predictions are very consistent with the available experiment results, implying that the model could be expected to be a general approach to understand the thermodynamic properties of nanomaterials. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press

Comparative study of Co2MnSi structural and surface morphological thin films on Si/SiO2

Rashmi Singh; Puneet Jain; Naresh Kumar; Pramod Kumar

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 76-79
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/203

Thin films of Co2MnSi are grown on n-doped Si (100) and SiO2 (100) substrates by RF sputtering. The deposition time to grow the films is varied, once for ten minutes and another for an hour at a particular substrate temperature 600oC and keeping all the other parameters same. The Co2MnSi thin films deposited on Si and SiO2 are crystalline irrespective of the deposition time. The grains were round in the thin films deposited for 10 minutes and these grains are more consistently interconnected in the films deposited for 1 hour. This is supported by the surface roughness data from AFM. The rms roughness is found to be 4.82nm for Si for 10 minutes and 2.50nm for Si for 1 hour deposition that was observed over an area of 3µm2. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Growth, structural, thermal and dielectric studies of a-glycine single crystals grown under the influence of potassium iodide for nonlinear optical applications

Panchatcharam Damodaran; Mani Mahadevan; Pandurangan Anandan; Palanivelu Shanmugha Sundaram; Rajamanickam Rajasekaran

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 80-85
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/204

Glycine has the simplest structure among all amino acids. Many attempts have been made to grow different derivative crystals of glycine. However, the title compound was not investigated thoroughly to understand the usability of the crystal for its device application. In the present investigation, using slow evaporation solution growth technique, single crystals of glycine have been grown in the presence of potassium iodide. Detailed investigations were made on structural and thermal properties of the grown crystals. Structural analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction method, Fourier Transform Infrared, FT-Raman and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectral methods to conform the grown crystals. Thermal stability of the grown crystals was studied by Thermogravimetric (TG) and Differential Thermal analysis (DTA) and it was found that the crystal is stable up to 113°C. UV-Vis spectral analysis has been carried out and the crystal has not any significant absorbance in the entire visible region. Dielectric studies for the grown samples have also been studied. Nonlinear optical property has been confirmed by Kurtz powder technique and found that the grown crystal has nearly fifty percentage of SHG efficiency as that of standard KDP sample. The observed properties have confirmed that the grown crystal is suitable for nonlinear optical applications. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Investigation of novel sustainable concrete using optimization technique

V. Subathra Devi; B. K. Gnanavel; P. Murthi; M. Madhanagopal

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 86-92
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/205

Concrete industry, the largest consumer of natural resources such as water, sand and crushing stone needs to be reoriented by adopting environmental friendly and a highly sustainable technology. Concrete with ceramic industrial waste is termed as Ceracrete. The properties of the ingredients of concrete need comparison before replacing the fine aggregate (FA) and coarse aggregate (CA) by ceramic waste. River sand is used as fine aggregate and broken stone as coarse aggregate. Then the concrete mix is designed as per the IS code provision for M20 grade. Concrete cubes are cast by replacing FA and CA by ceramic waste from 0% to 50% in steps of 10% as type 1(FA replacement), type 2 (CA replacement) and type 3 (FA and CA replacement). The compressive strength and workability of three types of concrete are compared with those of the conventional concrete (0% replacement). Fine aggregate replacement by ceramic waste (type 1) shows better compressive strength than type 2, type 3 and conventional concrete. But the water absorption of type 1 concrete is higher, compared to the other types. The workability of the type 1 concrete is smaller. The optimum percentage of replacement of type 1 concrete is found by design of experiments using the Taguchi method. Concrete with good workability and higher compressive strength is observed for 6.62 % to 13.97 % of replacement of fine aggregate by ceramic waste, whereas, the water absorption for this optimum percentage of replacement is similar to that of the conventional concrete. Hence ceramic waste is used as a replacement material for fine aggregate in the field of construction after analyzing the structural properties, durability, bond strength etc., The analysis shows the higher contribution of the percentage of replacement to the improvement of workability and compressive strength. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Structural and optical characterization of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

Elangbam C. Devi; Ibetombi Soibam

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 93-96
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/206

Manganese ferrite nanoparticles with chemical formula MnFe2O4 have been synthesized by low temperature chemical co-precipitation method. The structural and optical properties of the nanoparticles were studied by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. XRD confirm pure spinel phase formation of the prepared sample. All the observed peaks correspond to the standard diffraction pattern of manganese ferrite having JCPDS card number 74-2403. From the XRD data, the average crystallite size was calculated and found to be 27.40 nm. The FTIR spectrum shows the characteristic bands of the spinel ferrite. Morphology of the nanoferrites was given by SEM image revealing that the particles are approximately spherical in shape. The elemental composition along with their relative ratios was given by EDAX and was found to be in agreement with their initial calculated values. UV- visible absorption spectrum of the prepared sample shows characteristic absorption in visible range and from the UV-visible absorption data the band gap of the prepared sample was determined. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles were found to possess a narrow band gap of 1.4 eV which may find applications in photocatalytic degradation of pollutants. The simple co-precipitation method proves to be an effective method for synthesis of pure phase manganese ferrite nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Effect of cenosphere on thermal conductivity of bamboo fibre reinforced composites

Hemalata Jena; Arun Kumar Pradhan; Mihir Kumar Pandit

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 97-102

The present study attempts to explore the possibilities of utilising industrial waste as filler material in bamboo fibre reinforced composites. Cenosphere, a mixture of alumina and silicon rich industrial waste produced during burning of coal in thermal power plants, is used as filler material in this study. It's use in composites would address environmental and economic concern arising in storage and handling of enormous quantity of waste discharged by the thermal power plants. In order to determine the heat insulation property of this polymer composites with varying bamboo fibre (18, 28, 33, 43 wt%) and cenosphere filler (0, 2.5, 3, 4.5, 6 wt%) content, thermal conductivity test is performed by using Lee’s disc apparatus. Experimental results reveal that with the increase in fibre loading, the thermal conductivity of the composite decreases and it is minimum at 43 wt% of fibre. It is also found that introduction of cenosphere fillers on bamboo fibre reinforced composite results in further reduction of its thermal conductivity. Hence improved thermal insulation property of these composites can be gainfully utilised in insulation application. The thermal conductivity of these composites is also evaluated by using Finite Element Method, which is in good agreement with that of experimental results. The test results for thermal conductivity are also in good agreement with various models available in the literature. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties and dye absorbance capacity of ZnO-CdS nanocomposite

Monika Tandon; Pratima Chauhan

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 103-106
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/208

ZnO-CdS nanocomposite material has been synthesized by Chemical Co-precipitation method. The prepared nanocomposite material has been characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and X-ray diffractometer (XRD). The optical band gap of prepared material lies between 3.6 eV to 4.0 eV. The synthesized nanocomposite material has been annealed at two different temperatures 160o C and 200o C. The results of UV-visible characteristic and XRD analysis show that the optical and structural property of the material depends on the temperature at which it has been annealed. A natural dye from beet root extract has been synthesized and has absorbance in visible region. The synthesized nanocomposite material is deposited over the glass plate using spin coater. The thin film of synthesized ZnO-CdS nanocomposite when annealed at higher temperature absorbs more dye than the film annealed at lower temperature. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B in water by visible light irradiated BMZ nanocomposite

Suranjan Sikdar; Sutanuka Pattanayek; Tanmay K Ghorai

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 107-112
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/209

The Bi2MoZnO7 nanocomposites have been successfully synthesized via co-precipitation and solid state method and followed by a low temperature calcinations treatment process. We find that such a Bi2MoZnO7 nanocomposite exihibits higher photoctatalytic activity and stability than Bi2MoO6, Bi2O3 and ZnO towards the aqueous phase degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light (420 nm < λ). The presence of Bi3+/Mo6+/Zn2+ ions in Bi2MoZnO7 and formation of defects in the lattice is believed to play an essential role in affecting the photoreactivity. The different types of active species scavengers are also play the photocatalytic process. The synthesized Bi2MoZnO7 nanocomposites were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, EDAX and IR techniques. The crystallite sizes, particle and grain sizes are 12±2, 5±1 and 100±5 nm, respectively. The rate of degradation of Rhodamine B by BMZ in aqueous phase is 7 times (40.70×10-3min-1) faster in comparison to pure Bi2O3/ZnO. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

In vitro disease burden analysis using green silver nanoparticles

Deepika Gupta; Patima Chauhan

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 113-116
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/210

Biologically manufactured silver nanoparticles are increasingly being used for various sterilization purposes because of its broad spectrum antibacterial activity. There have been relatively few studies on the applicability of silver NPs to control plant diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (GAgNPs) to analyze disease burden in poppy plants affected with Downy mildew (DM) disease caused by fungi Peronospora arborescens for the first time. The GAgNPs was also assayed to determine its antimicrobial potential against bacterial strains. We found that there were some bacterial strains in addition to the fungus which affected the crop yield, by measuring colony forming unit (CFU), caused disease burden on poppy plants. In in vitro examination shows, GAgNPs significantly inhibited bacterial strains even at 10 ppm (least minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)) then control. Maximum inhibition shows at 100 ppm (most MIC) which is an optimize concentration of GAgNPs. These results suggest that GAgNPs have potential for use as economic, low-dose, potentially non-persistent anti-microbial agents against both DM fungi and the bacterial strains.     Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Effect of varying reactant precursors on synthesis of nanostructured Iron disulphide (FeS2)

Gurpreet Kaur; Bikramjeet Singh; Paviter Singh; Manpreet Kaur; Anup Thakur; Manjeet Kumar; Rajni Bala; Akshay Kumar

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 117-118
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/211

Nontoxic and earth abundant nanostructured semiconductors have experienced wide attention of researchers recently. One of the more studied material is Iron pyrite (FeS2) owing many different promising applications. Herein, the synthesis of nanostructures by varying the reactant precursors of iron and sulphur has been reported. The molar ratio of iron and sulphur precursors play a crucial role in determining the quality of nanostructures. This work further advances synthesis with pyrite purity, structure control and then promotes use in photovoltaics, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry applications. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Structural and physical analysis of borosilicate glasses with Pr3+ ions

Priyanka Goyal; Sudha Pal; Umesh Chandra Bind; Yogesh Kumar Sharma

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 119-124
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/212

The present works gives the information about the structural and physical analysis of borosilicate glasses with praseodymium ions. Glass specimen were prepared with the chemical composition (50-x) B2O3 - (10+x) SiO2 – 10Na2O – 20PbO – 10ZnO - 1Pr6O11 (where x= 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40) by standard method. The composition of the glass specimens was finalized by EDX. The presence of various stretching and bending vibrations are confirmed with the help of FTIR analysis. The borate network of the present glass samples lies in the wavelength range 500-1600 cm-1 and confirmed by the TEM image. Anti-symmetric stretching vibrations with three non-bridging oxygens of B – O – B groups are present at ~1488 cm-1. XRD were recorded for confirmation of the amorphous nature of the samples. The SEM image confirmed the XRD results. Various physical parameters have been calculated for knowing the structure of present glass with increasing the SiO2 concentration. Oxygen Packing Density (OPD) decreases with increase in SiO2 concentration. Decrease in the value of OPD shows that glass structure is now loosely packed. Absorption spectra of the glass samples were recorded in UV-VIS/NIR region. JO intensity, Racah, Slater-Condon, Lande parameters have been computed. W2 parameter gives information about the glass structure and depends upon the Pr – O bond in the host matrix. Optical energy band gap and Urbach’s energy values were calculated for exploring the electronic band structure. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Optical mesophase textures and the enthalpy changes with temperature of a liquid crystal compound 9OBA

Sangita Patari; Aparna Nath

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 125-127
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/213

In this article, our intention is to observe the mesophase textures of a liquid crystal (LC) compound 4-nonyloxybenzoic Acid (9OBA) in an attempt to understand the nature of dramatic changes of the mesophase transition textures with temperature. The studies of mesophase textures were carried out by using polarizing optical microscope (POM). Mesophase transition temperatures and their corresponding enthalpy changes (during heating) are experimentally deduced from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Higher value of enthalpy changes has been observed for the solid crystalline to Smectic C (SmC) transition. The compound 9OBA is found to exhibit nematic and SmC mesosphase and may be useful for the projection display since it exhibits high clearing temperature. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Effect of processing parameters on synthesis of nanostructured boron carbide

Paviter Singh; Manpreet Kaur .; Gurpreet Kaur .; Bikramjeet Singh .; Kulwinder Singh; Harpreet Kaur .; Mandeep Singh .; Manjeet Kumar .; Rajni Bala .; Ramovatar Meena .; Akshay Kumar .

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 128-131
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/214

Boron carbide is well known metallurgical product used in cutting/coating tool industry. Nanostructured boron carbide finds its application in medical, optical and defence industry due to its structural, mechanical and optical properties. In present paper, we report the effect of processing parameters (reaction time and temperature/pressure) on the synthesis of nanostructured boron carbide. Detailed X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) analysis was done along with theoretical studies of pressure. Results show that the best temperature for synthesis of nanoscale boron carbide is 800 °C. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.

Green synthesis of Cu2O hollow microspheres

Abhishek K. Bhardwaj .; Abhishek Shukla .; S. C. Singh; Kailash N. Uttam .; Gopal Nath; Ram Gopal

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2017, Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 132-138
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2017/215

Green synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) from biological constituents extracts have emerged as potential methods for the fabrication of metallic NPs. In the present study, Cuprous oxides hallow microspheres (Cu2O-HMs) have been synthesized using D. carota pulp waste extract (CPWE). This Cu2O hollow microsphere (Cu2O-HMs) synthesis is environmental friendly, at room temperature. The aqueous copper ions are reduced into Cu2O-NPs, when these ions interact with active reducing constituents of CPWE and very little amount of sodium hydroxide for enhancing rate of reaction. The Cu2O-NPs have been characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD measurements contain average size of Cu2O-NPs are approx 12 nm which is responsible to form Cu2O-HMs. UV-VIS spectra show that the surface Plasmon resonance peak of copper is observed at 490 nm. FTIR measurements indicate the presence of different reducing constituents in D. carota extract which is responsible for reducing and capping bioreduced Cu2O-HMs. TEM measurement shows that most Cu2O-HMs are spherical in shape and are responsible to form microsphere and nanotubes. Antibacterial activity of Cu2O-HMs tested on S. aureus shows a comparable zone of inhibition. These interesting results may be applicable for the cost-effective, environmental friendly, surface disinfectant and biomedical fields. Copyright © 2017 VBRI Press.