Issue 4

Post Covid-19 Era: Higher Education Transformation from Offline to Online

Jyotsna Meshram

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-2
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040409

During the past few months, with somewhere to coronavirus everywhere, the invisible virus has taught us lesson.  Post COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the entire scenario of higher education and the educational Institutes in India has undergone massive reformed transformation. We have started to look into new openings to educate ourselves to find the solutions to paradigm shift in learning from traditional teaching method of chalk, talk and board to virtual teaching by means of innovations in technology. However, structural imbalances exist even in this digital era. The major issues with the rural learning is the problem of internet access, electricity and ICT tools like laptops and smart phones. The Government of India should take steps, consider the ground reality, work to bring poor, lower stratum of society, underprivileged students in the forefront of main stream quality education. Our country’s policies should ensure a strong foundation in this difficult time of crisis to innovate, ensure quality education to all for few critical months and future as well with sustainable inclusive development.

A Review on Internal Design Modifications in Activated Sludge Process: Status, Impact and Recommendations

Nivedita Dashora; Dhananjay Bhatkhand; Manik Deosarkar; Shraddha Khamparia

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040410

With water crisis getting severe each year all over the world, development in waste water recycling techniques has gained momentum to meet strict environmental norms and to take advantage of the recyclability of water. Biological treatment methods predominate over other recycling methods as they are less expensive and do not generate secondary pollutants. Challenges faced in using these methods such as low oxygen solubility in water or insufficiency in maintaining booming environment for microorganisms and sludge water separation issues  restrain their full fledge utilization, thus hampering expenditure control and the final effluent quality which can be achieved otherwise. The developments made so far to overcome drawbacks of conventional activated sludge process revolves around modifications in suspended, attached growth process and improvements via integration of both systems. Further process refinement includes modifications in aeration and sludge separation systems but lacks the cost analysis for scale up. This paper critically reviews various internal design modifications made in aerobic treatment of wastewater by several researchers on lab and pilot scale to overcome the problem faced while operation. This paper also gives guidelines to meet the design objectives for a commercial scale wastewater treatment plant from process efficiency and economy aspects.

An Insight into Investigations on Intensification of Adsorbent Beds

Sunil Kulkarni; Ajaygiri Goswami

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040411

Many pollutants like acid gases, organic gases and inorganic gases are removed from gas mixtures by using adsorption. Regeneration of the adsorbent bed is an important aspect of successful adsorption technology. Adsorption-desorption cycle is governed by changes in pressure or temperature. These methods are termed as pressure swing (PSA) and temperature swing adsorption (TSA). For intensification of the process, it is envisaged to have an equal duration of the adsorption and desorption phases. Temperature swing adsorption (TSA) process can be intensified by employing several methods such as thermal conductivity promoter, thermoelectric elements and cyclic operating mode. Poor conductivity of the adsorbents is also one of the reasons for extended cycle time. Use of conducting materials in the form of composite fins for increasing the heat transfer through porous beds can reduce the adsorption-desorption cycle time. Also use of electrothermal swing adsorption (ESA) with thermoelectric element can intensify the adsorption-desorption process. Thermoelectric element converts current to temperature and vice versa. When there is difference in temperature, electric current of proportional magnitude is generated. Pressure swing (PSA) technology can also be intensified by using process engineering tools. Circulation fluidized beds can be used for dehumidification and also adsorption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Uniform bed temperature and mass transfer are advantages of circulation fluidized beds. In this paper, investigations on intensification of adsorption beds are discussed.

A Review on Essential Minerals in Water Required for Human Health and Nutrition

S.S. Hatkar; D.S. Bhatkhande; S. Khamparia; S.R. Satpute

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040412

Water plays an important role in the body to perform various crucial functions which include mineral supply to the body. The relative contribution of water to the total dietary intake for selected trace elements and electrolytes lies between 1 and 20%. Minerals are inorganic supplements which are required for humans in limited quantities in the range of 1 to 4000 mg per day, depending upon the type of mineral. Requirement of minerals changes from gender to different age group, similar to that of nutrients and other basic nourishment supplements. Calcium (Ca) is essential for humans in the development of bone and proper working of nerves and muscles. Magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) are significant co-factors which are essential in various biochemical reactions. Iodine (I) is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones which control body’s metabolism and many other body functions. Potassium (K) is significant for maintaining osmotic harmony among cells, and the interstitial liquid. Red platelets cannot work properly without iron in haemoglobin. Excessive consumption or insufficient intake of selected trace minerals can disturb the body balance and can cause various chronic effects. The paper studies the alterations in various biochemical functions when these trace minerals are consumed in disproportionate manner. This paper critically emphasizes on the controlled uptake of vital minerals such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, I, K from water.

Molecular Docking Study of Substituted Chalcone Compounds as Potential Cyclin-Dependent Protein Kinase 2 (Cdk-2) Inhibitors

Kanhaiya M. Dadure; Animeshchandra G. M. Haldar; Debarshi Kar Mahapatra

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-3
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040413

The present investigative studies involve molecular docking study of substituted thiophene-based chalcone compounds (A1-A9) against anti-cancer therapeutic target cyclin-dependent protein kinase-2 (Cdk-2) (PDB ID: 1HCL) for identifying and developing potential inhibitors. Few imperative physicochemical properties such as stretching, bending, stretching-bending, torsion, Non-1,4 VDW, 1,4 VDW, total steric energy for frame, and total energy of the best inhibitors have also been determined.

Facile and Green Synthesis of Silica Based Hydrogel for Drug Loading Application

Ujwala S. Tayade; Jyotsna S. Meshram; Amulrao U. Borse

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040414

In this study, we have chosen chitosan as capping and stabilizing agent for silica-based hydrogel synthesis. Chitosan, a biomaterial linear polysaccharide gives the pathway to greener synthesis. The source of Silica that has been chosen is sodium silicate which is very cheap when compared to other silanating agent. But the more important feature of these hydrogels is that they shows the similar properties in the qualitative and quantitative analysis. The applications of these nanoparticles are also like another silane reagent. The hydrogel was characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, XRD, and SEM with EDX analysis. The prepared nanoparticle in presence of acidic medium shows the behavior of hydrogel and they swell in water because of hydrophilicity of water. The hydrogel is applicable in drug loading such as isoniazid.

The Fabrication of Green and Sustainable Pathway for the Synthesis of Bis-indolyl Methane Scaffolds

Devendra S. Raghuvanshi; Jyotsna S. Meshram

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-5
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040415

The green and efficient procedure for the preparation of substituted bis-indolyl methane via condensation of indole with various aryl aldehydes (3 MCR) in the presence of catalytic amount MFA (Modified Fly Ash; a zeotype catalyst) at reflux temperature in good to excellent yield (85-95%) is reported. This method is utilizing the solvent free condition with the beneficial features such as short reaction time and easy process for isolation. The rate of reactions is found to relay on EDGs and EWGs substituents present on aryl aldehydes at particular positions.

Alternative Methods for Chemical Disinfection of Potable Water

Trupti Kekare; Dhananjay Bhatkhande; Tanushree Bhattacharjee; Shraddha Khamparia

Advanced Materials Proceedings, 2020, Volume 5, Issue 4, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.5185/amp.2020.040416

Microbial contamination in drinking water proves to be a sustainable threat to human health. Several methods are being utilized for disinfecting contaminated drinking water varies from simple boiling method to advanced technologies such as membrane technologies (Micro filtration, Ultra filtration, Reverse osmosis). Various chemical methods practiced are chlorination, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, bromine, and peracetic acid treatment. Chemical disinfectants lead to formation of toxic by-product which degrade the quality of water. The present review paper discusses alternative methods for chemical disinfection of potable water.